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城市生活污水处理技术及问题探讨

时间:2014-01-29 16:51:10来源:四川nba外围 环保设备有限公司打印本文

  在城市污水管网尚未铺就或不可能到达,或尚未建成城市污水处理厂的城市的住宅小区,生活污水处理一直都是很难解决的问题。过去常用的化粪池沉淀和厌氧发酵,虽然对悬浮物质和寄生虫卵有一定的去除作用,但BOD5去除率很低,且不具备脱氮除磷功能,已不能满足水污染防治和水环境保护的需要。近年来,适用于住宅小区的小型污水处理站和污水处理设备的技术开发发展迅速。本文拟就这方面的成果进行论述,并对存在的问题提出看法。
.技术开发住宅小区生活污水处理技术的沿革,经历了从单一工艺到组合工艺的过程。从是否需氧的角度考察,则沿着“厌氧→好氧→厌氧+好氧→厌氧+缺氧”的轨迹发展。从去除对象来看,早期技术仅能去除SS物质,而现在的工艺还具备脱氮除磷功能。下面介绍几种目前常用的处理技术和设备。

  1.1SHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUAFA。SHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUAFA,SHIYIZHONGJIEYUHUOXINGWUNIFAHESHENGWUMOFADEWUSHUISHENGWUCHULIJISHU,JIANBEILIANGZHEDEYOUDIAN。QIZHUYAOGOUZHUWUWEISHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUACHI,CHINEICHONGTIANTIANLIAO。YIJINGCHONGYANGDEWUSHUIYIYIDINGDELIUSULIUJINGBEIQIJINMEIDETIANLIAO,ZAITIANLIAOSHANGXINGCHENGSHENGWUMO。WUSHUIYUSHENGWUMOGUANGFANJIECHU,ZAISHENGWUMOSHANGWEISHENGWUDEZUOYONGXIA,YOUJIWURANWUDEDAOQUCHU,WUSHUIDEDAOJINGHUA。YOUYUCHINEIJUBEISHIYUWEISHENGWUQIXIZENGZHIDELIANGHAOHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,YINCI,SHENGWUMOSHANGSHENGWUXIANGFENGFU、SHIWULIANZHANG、WEISHENGWUNONGDUGAO、HUOXINGQIANG,BUCHANSHENGWUNIPENGZHANG,WUNISHENGCHENGLIANGSHAO,QIEYIYUCHENDIAN。SHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUAFAJUYOUDUOZHONGJINGHUAGONGNENG,CHUYOUXIAODIQUCHUYOUJIWUWAI,RUYUNXINGDEDANG,HAINENGGOUTUOYANGHECHULIN。SHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUAFADEGUANJIANBUWEISHITIANLIAO。CHUANTONGDEFENGWOZHUANGSULIAOGUANJIAOYIDUSAI,XIANZAICHANGCAIYONGDIAOGUASHIRUANXINGTIANLIAOHEXUANFUHUOBANXUANFUQIUXINGTIANLIAO,NENGYOUXIAODIFANGZHIDUSAI,QIEMIANJIJIAODA,CHULIXIAOGUOHAO。SHENGWUJIECHUYANGHUAFASHIZHUZHAIXIAOQUSHENGHUOWUSHUICHULIJIAOZAODECAIYONGDEJISHUZHIYI,QIZHUTIGONGYILIUCHENGWEI:YUANWUSHUI→CHUCHENCHI→JIECHUYANGHUACHI→ERCHENCHI→XIAODUCHI→PAIFANGCHUCHENCHI、ERCHENCHIJUNWEISHULIUSHICHENDIANCHI,SHANGSHENGLIUSUFENBIEWEI0.6~0.8mm/sHE0.3~0.4mm/s。CAIYONGTIXINGZHIGUANTIANLIAO,CHIZHONGXINLANGDAOSHISHELIUPUQI,QISHUIBIWEI10:1~12:1,TINGLIUSHIJIANWEI2.5~3.3h。SHEJIJINSHUIPINGJUNBOD5=200mg/L,CHUSHUIBOD5=20mg/L。

  1.2LIANGDUANHUOXINGWUNIFA。LIANGDUANHUOXINGWUNIFA,JIANCHENGABFA。GAIFABAWUSHUIGUANDAO、WUSHUICHULICHANGSHIWEIYIGEWUSHUICHULIXITONG。QIGONGYITEDIANSHI:BUSHECHUDIANCHI,ADUANGAOFUHE,BDUANDIFUHE,A、BLIANGDUANWUNIFENBIEHUILIU,CHONGFENLIYONGWUSHUIGUANDAOZHONGDEWEISHENGWU,WEIBUTONGSHIQISHENGZHANGDEYOUSHIWEISHENGWUZHONGQUNCHUANGZAOLIANGHAODEHUANJINGTIAOJIAN,RANGQICHONGFENFAHUIZUOYONG,NAICHONGJIFUHENENGLIQIANG,CHULIXIAOGUOWENDING。QIZHUTIGONGYILIUCHENGWEI:YUANWUSHUI→GEZHA→DINGPUQIDIAOJIECHI→ADUANPUQICHI→ADUANCHENDIANCHI→BDUANPUQICHI→BDUANCHENDIANCHI→PAIFANGGAILEISHEBEI,CAIYONGZIXISHISHELIUPUQIJI、WUZHIJIADEWUNIXUANFUXINGSHENGWUTIANLIAO、CEXIANGLIUPOXINGXIEBANCHENDIANCHIDENGXIANJINJISHU。BOD5QUCHULVWEI90%,CODQUCHULVWEI80%。

  1.3XUPISHIHUOXINGWUNIFA。XUPISHIHUOXINGWUNIFA,JIANCHENGSBRFA。YUANZESHANG,SBRFADEZHUTIGONGYISHEBEIZHIYOUYIGEJIANXIFANYINGQI,ZAIYIGEYUNXINGZHOUQIZHONG,ANYUNXINGCIXU,FENWEIJINSHUI、FANYING、CHENDIAN、PAISHUIHEXIANZHIWUGEJIEDUAN。SBRFADEGUANJIANSHEBEIBISHUIQIDEYANZHI,YIQUDEZHANGZUDEFAZHAN。MUQIANCHANGYONGDEBISHUIQI,YOUHONGXISHI、XUANZHUANSHIHETAOTONGSHISANZHONG。SBRFAGONGYIJIANDAN、JIESHENGFEIYONG,LIXIANGDETUILIUGUOCHENGSHISHENGHUAFANYINGTUILIDA、XIAOLVGAO,YUNXINGFANGSHILINGHUO,TUODANCHULINXIAOGUOHAO,MEIYOUWUNIPENGZHANG,NAICHONGJIFUHE、CHULINENGLIQIANG。QIZHUTIGONGYILIUCHENGWEI:YUANWUSHUI→DIAOJIECHI→SBRFANYINGCHI→XIAODUCHI→CHUSHUICAIYONGGAIGONGYILIUCHENGDESHANGHAIMOUWUSHUICHULIZHANSHEJIPINGJUNLIULIANG750m3/d,JINSHUISHUIZHI。  BOD5=200mg/LSS=250mg/L,TN=40mg/L,NH4+=20mg/L,CHUSHUISHUIZHIDADAOHUANGPUJIANGSHANGYOUWUSHUIPAIFANGBIAOZHUN,JIBOD5<30mg/L,SS<30mg/L,NH4+<10mg/L,TN<20mg/L。

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